Immigration remains one of the most debated subject in the united states with the core issue being addressing the undocumented immigrants that do not have legitimate status. Policy arguments on the aggregate capitals that should be devoted towards this problem and the substitute policies like border control, amnesty and deportation all depends on the figure of undocumented immigrants in the US. The united states government is therefore faced with a fierce political and policy debate on how to address the undocumented immigrants. The most acknowledged estimation of the undocumented migrants stands at 11.3 billion and this approximation is centered on the deviations of the residual technique (Becerra, 4). However, illegitimate immigration can be resolved over a series of policy movements rather than a distinct policy deed. Such solutions include documentation of all the illegal immigrants, reinforcement the immigration scheme, restructuring birthright citizenship and the internal revenues service. Numerous research has been done from different field of studies and this synthesis will critically analyze the literature from the existing literature and suggest best solutions for policy makers on the issue of illegal undocumented immigrants in the united states.
Economic Impacts of Undocumented Illegal Population
The economic impacts that results with the regularization of the undocumented immigrants emerge as a road block since it is impossible to estimate the economic status and well-being of 11.4 million undocumented people. In his research, Becerra (7) realized that policy makers lack the information regarding the undocumented immigrants age earning profiles, individual’s contributions to various government programs and the contributions that would result after the regularization of the undocumented citizens. However, Black (309) denotes that regularization of status can lead to an increase to their average wage since they the undocumented workers might opt for a wider range of employee options. Capps (2) found that immigration has imposed significant impacts to the economy of the united states. First and foremost, immigration has led to rapid increase of the American population and thus the growth of economy. However, the illegal undocumented immigrants have been associated with the negative growth of the economy on the sense that they do not pay taxes. Moreover, Black (309) found that immigration has reduced regional differences in income inequality, 20th century immigrant community place a disproportionate burden on public charitable agencies or private philanthropist and immigrants permanently lowered the real wage of resident workers.
In a research by Becerra (8), most of the undocumented immigrants were found to have less education as compared to the average Americans. Undocumented immigrants accounts for more than 3% of the U.S population and 25% of the immigrant population. Half of this population have lived in the united states for more than 15 years. Becerra (9) found that approximately 7.8 million of the undocumented immigrants are already in the workforce especially in farming fields and construction. However, only half of this number pay Social Security payroll taxes regardless of the fact that they are not eligible social security benefits upon retirement. However, Black (309) realized that more than 15% of this undocumented immigrant’s benefits from Medicaid which is equal to the percent of Native-Americans that use Medicaid. This is due to the fact that most of the undocumented immigrants live in households with eligible Americans. Moreover, the United States Border Patrol apprehended 0.4 million immigrants registering for asylum. In a report by Black (309), unauthorized immigrants burden the government of the united states $ 17 billion for anchor babies, $12 billion on primary and secondary education, $22 billion on food assistance programs, $11-22 billion in welfare and $ 90 billion in welfare and social services.
Solutions to Illegal Immigration
Strengthening The Country’s Immigration System
There has been a hot policy debate against those who believe that border enforcement is useless and without extended permissible work prospects and those who have confidence in that the border can be closed contrary to illegal entry by use force only. However, Becerra (7) found that both sides have evidence to support their cases where critics points out continued illegal entry despites billions of money spent on the enforcement while enforcers point out targeted success while sealing the border. Capps (1) denotes that it’s hard for both sides to present the references to reinforce their cases but enhancements in both figures and scrutiny is constantly making it conceivable to provide responses to the interrogation over the efficiency of the border implementation in deterring and stopping illegal entrance.
The current system has attained considerable success in stopping the unauthorized migration and the number of the illegal immigrants has fallen from 1.8 million in 2000 to 0.2 million by 2015. In his research, Black (310) discovered that border administration has emerged as a substantial goal for deterioration where the use of penalties once one is caught crossing the border like jail time has reaped much success. Deterring through enforcement have significantly reduced the number of crossing. In another research, Becerra (8) asserts that the current system is facing numerous challenges. For instance, Trump step to separate parents from their children at the border is a cruel act that has raised debate in most fields of study. Brooking experts have questioned the current state of immigration policy and what government is doing to reform it.
However, Capps (3) asserts that tough immigration policies will only fleeing violence instead of reducing illegal immigration. Additionally, Black (311) found that the Supreme Court announced its decision on June 26 to uphold the latest version of Presidents Trump ban that restricted immigrants and travelers from seven countries which were mostly Muslim countries.
However, more border enforcement expenditures are essential. Congress has shown interest to consider Trump administration budget proposals that seeks an additional of $2.6 billion for construction of physical barrier and border security. Congress should also consider the incremental improvements that might arise from the extra expenditure on border implementation.
According to Stock (139) deterrence through enforcement might lead to diminishing returns regardless of its success in decreasing illegitimate entrance through the border due to various reasons. First, the rising percentage of the recurrence border crossers are parents with children left behind in the united states which is a populace that is hard to daunt than young fiscal immigrants. Secondly, most of the adding number of the united states undocumented populations are resulting from new arrival on legal visas and the prolonging and southern border administration take no action to this irregularity. Finally, it worth noting that the entrances at the boundary are more of asylum enquirers from the central America rather than Mexican inhabitants and it is difficult to deter such people since the united states has legal duties to contemplate to serious needs of asylum.
Documenting all the illegal immigrants
In a research by Becerra (7), the number of the undocumented immigrants in the united states is approximated to be 11.3 million. However, Stock (139) asserted that various mathematical modeling on a range of demographic and immigrations data proves that the real number of the undocumented immigrant population is higher than this estimate. In the current years, congress has received many proposals on how to address and regulate this undocumented population and provide a path for citizenship. Black (310) found that changes to the immigration status can significantly affect the various fields like labor market. In a report by “America’s Immigration System is Broken” (7) Donald Trump suggested that the number of undocumented immigrants living in the united states were more than 30 million. However, the number is constantly reducing at higher rate following the restrictive measures like zero tolerance by Donald Trump.
According to Becerra (9), not only the number of undocumented immigrants decreased, but also the identity of the illegal immigrants has changed. While president Obama embarked on recession and the housing burst, president Donald Trump administration has implemented tougher border enforcement rules like zero tolerance. America’s Immigration System is Broken” (3) found that all this factors with rise in importations does not reduce this numbers of undocumented immigrants, but has raised other critical issues as well.Many problems have been linked with the undocumented illegal immigrants that include violence, crime, and failure to pay taxes. Becerra (9) denoted that united state citizens are afraid of immigrants following the belief that they engage in many criminal activities and they are a threat to their safety. Capps (4) realized that the Social Security Administration collects billions of money in taxes that It doesn’t know who paid for. From their files, majority of the funders were found to be the undocumented immigrants.
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