26) Organizational commitment is a person’s attitudes towardsA) his or her specific job.B) his or her supervisor.C) the entire organization.D) meeting coworkers’ needs.27) When managers become aware of evidence of potential discrimination, they need toA) act proactively to address the potential problem.B) perhaps change the organization’s policies and practices.C) pay immediate attention.D) All of the above28) ________ helped Effective Diversity Practices (EDP) companiesmeet the challenge of effectively managing diversity.A) Ongoing diversity trainingB) Top management commitmentC) Recruiting and hiring diverse employeesD) All of the above29) Which of the following statements concerning perception is not true?A) Accurate perceptions are the prerequisite for good decisions.B) Decisions regarding compensating organizational members do not depend on perception.C) Virtually every decision that a manager makes depends on his or her perceptions.D) When perceptions are inaccurate, managers make faulty decisions that hurt the employees and the organization.30) The Business-Higher Education Forum is seeking to promoteA) diversity in the college admissions process.B) conformance to social norms.C) impression management training.D) restrictions on affirmative action programs in higher education.31) ________ is an attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others.A) Impression managementB) Situational manipulationC) Perceptual targetingD) Stereotyping32) The situation is an important characteristic of perception because itA) defines what behavior is observed.B) provides additional information about the perceiver.C) provides the perceiver with additional information to use in interpreting the target.D) changes how the situation is objectively perceived.33) Which of the following jobs are being outsourced?A) Software designsB) EngineeringC) AccountingD) All of the above34) To use positive reinforcement to facilitate the learning of desired behaviors, managers need to determine what consequences areA) unusual or extraordinary.B) considered discriminatory and preferential treatment.C) the least expensive.D) considered positive by a given worker.35) The factors stressed in social learning theory that influence learning in organizations include all of the following exceptA) self-control.B) vicarious learning.C) reactive learning.D) self-efficacy.36) Which of the following must be met for vicarious learning to take place?A) The learner must observe the model as he or she performs the behavior.B) The learner must have the skills and abilities to perform the behavior.C) The learner must remember the behavior.D) All of the above37) Learning by doing is referred to asA) mentoring.B) experiential learning.C) operant conditioning.D) vicarious learning.38) According to Peter Senge, all of the following except ________ are key activities central to a learning organization.A) communicating a shared vision for the organization as a wholeB) encouraging learning in groups and teamsC) encouraging low self-efficacyD) encouraging system thinking39) All of the following except ________ are key parts to thedefinition of work motivation.A) level of effortB) level of persistenceC) order of functionalityD) direction of behavior40) The key challenge facing managers in terms of motivation is how to encourage employees toA) shift from extrinsic to intrinsic work behavior.B) contribute inputs to their jobs and to the organization.C) expect more outcomes from the job.D) All of the above41) According to the hierarchy of needs, the most basic needs areA) safety and self-actualization.B) analytical and pathological.C) physiological and safety.D) psychological and psychosocial.42) ________ is concerned with how employees make choices among alternative behaviors and levels of effort.A) Expectancy theoryB) Need theoryC) ERG theoryD) Equity theory43) ________ refers to the desirability of an outcome to anindividual employee.A) MotivationB) ValenceC) PotentialityD) Anticipation44) ________ involves the perceived fairness of the distribution of outcomes in organizations, such as pay or promotions.A) Interpersonal justiceB) Distributive justiceC) Informational justiceD) Procedural justice45) ________ was a driving force in the movement to enrich jobs.A Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theoryB) Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theoryC) Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics modelD) Salancik and Pfeffer’s social information processing model46) In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job involves performing a whole piece of work from beginning to end is referred to asA) task significance.B) task identity.C) feedback.D) autonomy.47) All of the following approaches to job design focus on some degree of intrinsic motivation exceptA) job enrichment.B) social information processing.C) the job characteristics model.D) scientific management.48) ________ postulates that people tend to classify themselves and others into social categories, such as being members of a certain group or organization.A) The societal schematicB) Social identity theoryC) The social information processing modelD) The job characteristics model49) ________ focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and why goals have these effects.A) Scientific managementB) The job characteristics modelC) Goal-setting theoryD) Social identity theory50) The use of specific and difficult goals, if not properly monitored, could reduceA) intrinsic motivation.B) cordial behavior.C) extrinsic motivation.D) performance.

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