• The Gladstone Power Station is Queensland's largest power station, with six coal powered steam turbines generating a maximum of 1,680 MW of electricity. Power was first generated in 1976 and the plant is located at Callemondah, Gladstone, Queensland, Australia. A report by the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) in 2018 predicted that the plant would “reach the end of its technical life” in 2029 and result in its closure. The power station’s operator, NRG, however, responded by stating that it had no intention of winding it down at that point but would be exploring ways in which coal-fired power could be combined with renewables such as wind and solar power. In its response, NRG did not commit to a firm closure date but pointed out that the existing plant and infrastructure could underpin a transition to the generation of “lower carbon” electricity. Your team has been requested to assist with an evaluation in this regard and to recommend the pursuit of one of the following options: • Option 1 – In 2030, replace the power station with a new Supercritical Pulverised Coal (SCPC) power plant with a nominal capacity of 1,680 MW, combined with the use of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. Assume that the construction timeline associated with the new SCPC plant will be three years and that in the first and second years of operation it will produce 70% and 90% of its design capacity when available (noting an overall availability of 85%). From the third year onwards, the plant will produce 100% of its design capacity when available. The new plant will operate for 30 years. • Option 2 – In 2030, replace the power station with a new Supercritical Pulverised Coal (SCPC) power plant with a nominal capacity of 1,000 MW (without the use of CCS technology), combined with the use of Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) with a nominal capacity of 680 MW. The construction timelines, production ramp-up rates and availability for the SPSC plant will be like Option 1. In contrast, the CCGT plant will take two years to construct and produce 75% of its design capacity in the first year, and 100% of its design capacity from the second year of operation onwards, when available (at an overall availability of 90%). The combined facility will operate for 30 years. • Option 3 – In 2030, replace the existing power station with one based on the use of Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) with a nominal capacity of 1,680 MW (without the use of CCS technology). The construction timelines, production ramp-up rates and availabilities will be like Option 2. The new plant will operate for 30 years. • Option 4 – In 2030, replace the power station with one based on the combined use of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology, combined with battery storage. Assume that the new power station will take two years to construct, operate for 30 years and dispatch 1,680 MW of electricity at a capacity factor of 85% from the first year of operation.

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