Creating Scatter Diagrams and MoreReview and follow the steps in your text and you may want to keep SPSS Statistics 21 Brief Guide handy justin case.1a.The following have been prepared so that data sets B through D are slightly modified versions of data setA. Make scatter diagrams and figure the correlation coefficients for each data set.DATA SET AXY11223344551b.DATA SET BXY1122334554DATA SET CXY1524334251DATA SET DXY1124334255Discuss how and why the correlations change.CorrelationsReview the steps in your text and you may want to keep SPSS Statistics 21 Brief Guide handy just in case.2.Enter the following data into SPSS. Determine the correlation between hours of studying and grade pointaverage in these honor students. Copy and paste the results into this document. Explain your results.Hours of Studying2312151416211411189Chi-SquareSPSS instructions:Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit:Open SPSSGPA3.953.904.003.763.973.893.663.913.803.89Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In the study presented in #1,there are 20 students, some of whom have been suspended for misbehavior. The primary conflict-resolution styleused by each student is also entered. [Ignore the first variable in this analysis.]When you have entered the data for all 20 students, move to the Variable View window and change the first variablename to SUSPEND and the second to STYLE. Set the number of decimals for both variables to zero.Click Analyze Non-Parametric Tests Chi-SquareClick the variable STYLE and then the arrow next to the box labeled Test Variable List to indicate that the chisquare for goodness of fit should be conducted on the conflict-resolution style variable.Note that All categories equal is the default selection in the Expected Values box, which means that SPSS willconduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the four styles, in other words, SPSSwill assume that the proportions of students each style are equal.Click OK.Chi-Square Test for Independence:Open SPSSFor #2, you need to add the variable SUSPEND to the analysis. Remember that in this problem, we are interestedin whether there was an association between conflict-resolution style and having been suspended from school formisbehavior. Since the analysis will involve two nominal variables, the appropriate test is a chi-square test forindependence.Click Analyze Descriptive Statistics CrosstabsSince SUSPEND is already selected, click the arrow next to the box labeled Rows.Click the variable STYLE and click the arrow next to the box labeled Columns.Click Statistics and click the box labeled Chi-Square.Click Continue.Click Cells and click the box labeled Expected.Click Continue.Click OK.1.The following table includes the primary method of conflict resolution used by 20 students.MethodN of StudentsAggressive8Manipulative2Passive2Assertive8a.b.2.Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determinewhether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by changeat the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.Explain your response to some who has never had a course in statistics.Next, researchers categorized the students based on the primary method of conflict resolution used andwhether the student had been suspended from school for misbehavior. These data are presented below.SuspendedYesNoTotalAggressive718MethodManipulativePassive111122Assertive178Total101020a.Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determinewhether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by changeat the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.b.Calculate the effect size.c.Explain your response to someone who has never had a course in statistics.Computing z-Scores Using SPSSUsing the data below:1.Determine the z-score that corresponds to each teachers salary and enter them in the table below.(Follow the steps on the second page).The following data are from a survey of high school teachers.SALARYSEX35,000Male18,000Female20,000Male50,000Female38,000Male20,000Female75,000Male40,000Female30,000Male22,000Female23,000Male45,000ZSALARYFemaleFollow the instructions below. For salary be sure to use scale for measure (and you will be entering the actualnumber so no need for values); sex is a nominal variable (Male= 1, Female=2).In SPSS, we compute z-scores via the Descriptives command.After you enter the data above, click Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Descriptives this will take you tothe dialog box for descriptives.In the bottom-left corner you will see a check box labeled Save standardized values as variables, check this boxand move the variable SALARY into the right-hand blank. Then click OK to complete the analysis. You will see thestandard output from the Descriptives command. Notice that the z-scores are not listed. SPSS inserts them into thedata window as a new variable (ZSALARY). Copy and paste your results to this document.2.Write a brief (but thorough) analysis of what these z-scores say about each teachers salary.CrosstabsFor this assignment you will be using the data contained in the following file (you can find it under Resources)soci332_dataset.savThe Crosstabs command produces frequency distributions for multiple variables. This command is useful fordescribing samples where the man is not useful (that is, nominal or ordinal scales) and as a method for getting a feelfor your data.To run crosstabs:Click Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Crosstabs. A dialog box will appear with your variables on theleft-hand side and a Row(s) box, Column(s) box, and Layer 1 of 1 box. Move the variable SEX to the Row(s) box,and the ANY OTHER VARIABLE YOU WANT (or use another attitude-variable that interests you) to theColumns(s) box. [If you wanted to analyze more than two variables, you would enter the third, fourth, fifth, etc., inthe Layer 1 of 1 box].Click on the Cells button in the bottom of the dialog box. This button allows you to specify percentages and otherinformation that you would like from each combination of values. Once you click on Cells, another dialog boxappears, select Observed under Counts; Row, Column, Total under Percentages then click on Continue. You willreturn to the Crosstabs dialog box, where you will click OK.Assignment:1.Your assignment is to run at least 5 crosstabs, copy and paste them to this document and briefly explaineach of them.Single Sample & Dependent Samples t TestsSPSS instructions: (For more details, check the links provided under Course Materials in the CourseOverview Folder (under Lessons).t Test for a Single Sample:Open SPSSEnter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in #1 in the Data Viewwindow.In the Variable View window, change the variable name to ADL and set the decimals to zero.Click Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test the arrow to move ADL to the Variable(s) window.Enter the population mean (14) in the Test Value box.Click OK.t Test for Dependent Means:Open SPSSEnter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in Problem 2 in the DataView window. Be sure to enter the before therapy scores in the first column and the after therapy scores in thesecond column.In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to ADLPRE and the variable namefor the second variable to ADLPOST. Set the decimals for both variables to zero.Click Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples T Test the arrow to move ADLPRE to the PairedVariable(s) window ADLPOST and then click the arrow to move the variable to the Paired Variable(s)window.Click OK.Review the five steps of hypothesis testing and complete the following problems. Be sure to cut and past theappropriate result boxes from SPSS under each problem.1.Researches are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a differentnumber of activities of daily living after group therapy. Th
e researchers have randomly selected 12depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program.Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of dailyliving (shown below) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of14 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly indicate each step).Test the difference at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level (in SPSS this means youchange the confidence level from 95% to 99%).In Step 2, show all calculations.As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for alldepressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate theeffect size.CLIENTABCDEFGHIJKL2.AFTER THERAPY171512211618171413151219Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a differentnumber of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected8 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program.Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in numbers ofactivities of daily living (shown below) obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level. (Clearly indicate each step).In Step 2, show all calculations. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommendgroup therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels ofsignificance and calculate the effect size.CLIENTABCDEFGHBEFORE THERAPY1271013981411AFTER THERAPY171512211618178The t Test for Independent SamplesSPSS instructions to run the t Test for Independent Samples: (For more details, check the links providedunder Course Materials in the Course Overview Folder (under Lessons).Once you have entered the data, click on Analyze, then on Compare Means, and then click on IndependentSamples T TestA dialog box will appear, with your variables (student, condition, score) on the left. Your options are (a) move oneor more variables into the Test Variable(s) box to select your dependent variables(s) and (b) move one of yourvariables into the Grouping Variable box to select the independent variables (or identify the groups to becompared).Make ? the dependent variable by moving it to the Test Variable(s) box. Then make ? your independentvariable by moving it to the Grouping Variable box. Now, the Define Groups button is functioning, click onDefine Groups and another dialog box appears. Here you must specify the two values of the condition variable thatrepresent the two groups you are comparing. Click in the box next to Group 1 and type the number 1, then click inthe box next to Group 2 and type the number 2. Now you can click Continue to return to the Independent-SamplesT Test dialog box, and click on OK to run the analysis.1.Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction ofemployees who participated in counseling sessions with the satisfaction of employees who chose not toparticipate.The scores on a job satisfaction inventory for both groups are listed in the table below.Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group thatparticipated in counseling are statistically higher than the scores of employees who did not participate incounseling at the .01 level of significance.In Step 2, show all calculations.As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improvejob satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate theeffect size.PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING3639403638353739422.DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING373536333038393532A researcher is interest in the effect of exercise on the perceptions of well-being among older. Theresearcher identified 30 residents of a retirement community and divided them into groups of 15 residents.Both groups were encouraged to walk at least 20 minutes per day. One group, however, also participated ina structured exercise program that emphasized flexibility. After 6 weeks, the behavioral scientist mailedquestionnaires to the 30 residents. Responses to an item asking residents to rate their perceptions of theirhealth on a 10-point scale on which 1 indicated very unhealthy and 10 indicated very healthy arepresented in the table that follows.Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in health ratings ofthe two groups are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance.In Step 2, show all calculations.As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend exercise as a method to improveperceptions of health among older adults based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate the effectsize.WALKING AND FLEXIBILITY566494796797498Analysis of VarianceSPSS instructions:Open SPSSWALKING ONLY23436776746Analyze the data for #1. Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. Inthis study, there are 15 participants divided into three groups of five. Therefore, each of the 15 participants will bedescribed by two variables, type of therapy and the number of activities of daily living performed.If 1 represents the group receiving individual therapy for 1 hour every 2 weeks, 2 represents the group receiving1 hour of individual therapy each week, and 3 indicates the group receiving 2 hours of individual therapy eachweek, the first participant will be described by entering 1 in the top cell of the first column in the Data Viewwindow and 16 in the top cell of the second column to indicate that the participant underwent 1 hour of therapyevery 2 weeks and performed 16 activities of daily living. The second participant will be described by 1 and 15,and the third by 1 and 18.When the two variables have been entered for the five participants in this group, repeat the process for participantswho underwent 1 hour of individual therapy each week, using 2 to describe their therapy group. When the twovariables for the five participants in this group have been entered, repeat the process for Group 3, entering 3 in thefirst column. In the Variable View window, change the first variable name to THERAPY and the second toADL and set the decimals for both to zero.Click Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA Since THERAPY is already selected, you can clickthe arrow to move the variable to the Factor window. Select ADL and click the arrow to move the variable to theDependent List window, which instruct SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activitiesperformed.1.Keep in mind that the clients in Group 1 will receive 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks, the clients in Group2 will receive 1 hour of therapy every week, and the clients in Group 3 will receive 2 hours of therapyevery week.Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number ofactivities in the following table performed by the three groups are statistically significant at the .05 level ofsignificance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain your results.CLIENT123452.GROUP 11615182119GROUP 22120172319GROUP 32421252022A researcher interested in the relationship between student perception of the probability of success in astatistics course and student motivation has administered an inventory designed to assess motivation in 18students.The students have been divided into groups as follows: Students in Group 1 believe they are highly likelyto succeed in the course, students in Group 2 believe they have an intermediate probability of success, andstudents in Group 3 believe they have little chance of success.Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in level ofmotivation in the following table are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicateeach of the five steps.Calculate the effect siz
e for the study. Explain the results of the hypothesis-testing procedure to someonewho is familiar with the t test for independent means, but not with analysis of variance.SUBJECT1234563.GROUP 1 (HIGH)9.08.56.57.08.05.5GROUP 2 (INTERMEDIATE)3.55.56.53.54.57.0GROUP 3 (LOW)4.55.56.58.05.56.0Due to the increasing number of trails involving testimony by behavioral scientists, a professionalorganization of behavior scientists asked judges, attorneys, jurors, and law enforcement officials to use a10-point scale to rate the effect of such testimony on trial outcomes.The results are presented in the table below. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whetherthe observed differences in effectiveness ratings are statistically significant at the .01 level of significance.Clearly indicate each of the five steps.Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain your results.CATEGORYJudgesAttorneysJurorsLaw EnforcementN6666M7.005.837.833.00S21.991.371.373.61
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