I. Review questions for true-false questions / multiple-choice questions / short-answer questions 1. Briefly specify the following terms: (1) ‘the Upanishads’ (2) ‘atman’ and ‘Atman’ (3) ‘Brahman’ (4) ‘Karma’ (5) ‘samsara’ (6) ‘maya’ (7) ‘avidya’ (8) ‘nirvana’ (9) ‘the three Jewels of Buddhism’ (10) ‘Buddha’ (11) ‘Three Signs of Being’ (12) ‘anicca’ (13) ‘sunyana’ (14) ‘prajna’ (15) ‘Dhyana’/‘Chan’/’Zen’ 2. What are major focuses and fundamental characteristic features of philosophical inquiry (so as to understand the relation between philosophy and Asian philosophy). 3. Briefly explain the statement that “Tat tvam asi” (“That are you”). 4. Briefly explain the statement that “Neti, neti” (“Not this, not this”). 5. Briefly discuss how the Hinduist metaphysical understandings of nature of the world bear on its understandings of the human life and destiny. 6. Briefly explain Sankara’s characterization of Brahman. 7. Briefly explain the distinction between the ‘orthodox’ and ‘unorthodox’ schools in Indian philosophical tradition. 8. Briefly explain Buddhism’s core idea–the Four Noble Truths. 9. Briefly explain the differences between the Mahayana school and the Hinayana school. 10. Briefly discuss how the Buddhist metaphysical understandings of nature of the world bear on its understandings of the human life and destiny. 11. Briefly explain Ji Zang’s double-truth account. 12. Briefly explain sudden enlightenment as understood by Chan/Zen Buddhism. 13. Briefly explain Chan/Zen Buddhist point of the attainment of non-attainment. 14. What are differences and connections between two related methodological things (i.e., a methodological perspective and its related methodological guiding principles) that are involved in effectively evaluating a methodological approach in Asian philosophy and comparative philosophy? How to maintain adequate methodological guiding principles? 2II. Review questions for essay questions Notes: (1) You need to give your answer to each of sub-questions indicated by “steps”. (2) It is expected that your answer to an essay question is not too brief to provide sufficient explanation and justification. (3) If you answer an essay question or part of it that expects your independent and critical thoughts, the criteria for evaluating your answer are these: (i) whether or not the concepts used are clear, (ii) whether or not your line of thought are coherent or consistent, and (iii) whether or not you provide your justification for your point. 1. Give a comparative examination of how Plato’s account of Forms, Lao Zi’s account of metaphysical Dao, Sankara’s account of Brahman, and Buddhist account of the three signs of existence could jointly contribute to our understanding and treatment of the metaphysical issue of being versus becoming? Steps: (1) briefly explain the major points of Plato’s view on the relation between the world of Forms and our sensible world, Lao Zi’s view on the relation between the metaphysical Dao and the world of particular things, Sankara’s view on the relation between Brahman and our sensible world, and Buddhist account of three signs of being; (2) how these four distinct approaches could jointly contribute to your understanding of the relation between being/unchanging and becoming/changing. 2. Give a comparative examination of Buddhist double-truth account and Zhuang Zi’s basic methodological strategy (i.e., his version of “transcendental perspectivism”) and explain how they can make joint contribution to your treatment of different approaches/perspectives on an issue. Steps: (1) identify in which aspects they are similar (or kindred in spirit) and in which aspects they are different; (2) explain how their distinct and shared aspects can make joint contribution to your understanding of different approaches/perspectives.] 3. Give a comparative examination of the Yin-Yang model, Hegelian model, and Buddhist “up?ya” model of interaction and transformation and explain how these three models could make some joint contribution to our understanding of transformation and development. Steps: (1) briefly explain what they are; (2) explain how these three models can make joint contribution to your understanding and treatment of transformation and development. 

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