INTRO PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

1. Which of the following is true for compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS)?

    May increase the risk for sepsis
    This is a normal response to any infection
    Normally occurs before SIRS
    Typically occurs with autoimmune disorders

2. Which of the following patients does a nurse determine as most at risk for neurogenic shock?

    Person with spinal cord injury at T2
    Person with systemic E.coli infection
    Person stabbed in the leg
    Person with severe allergies

3. A nurse comments that a patient is displaying an overwhelming immune response to trauma. Which acronym would apply to the nurse’s statement?

    APACHE
    MODS
    CARS
    SIRS

4. A patient presents with anaphylactic shock. Which of the following has likely occurred?

    Internal bleeding
    Disruption of the sympathetic nervous system
    Failing heart rate and blood pressure
    Massive bronchoconstriction

5. All of the following are criteria for SIRS EXCEPT

    Leukocytosis
    Hypothermia
    Hypoventilation
    Fever
    Elevated heart rate

6. A nursing student is reviewing the “gut theory” in relation to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). What is the correct sequence for the following events?

1. Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal ischemia

2. Increased permeability of GI wall

3. Massive immune response to GI bacteria

4. Decreased perfusion of GI tract

5. GI bacteria enter bloodstream

 

2,4,1,3,5

5,1,2,4,3
4,1,2,5,3
1,2,3,4,5
 

7. Match the following.

         –           A.           B.           C.           D.           E.           F.           G. uncontrolled bleeding from orifices, wounds, and IV sites
         –           A.           B.           C.           D.           E.           F.           G. small blood clots
         –           A.           B.           C.           D.           E.           F.           G. inadequate blood supply
         –           A.           B.           C.           D.           E.           F.           G. microorganisms multiplying in the bloodstream

 

 

 

 

   
A. microthrombi
B. cardiac tamponade
C. ischemia
D. DIC
E. ARDS
F. septicemia
G. anaphylactic shock

 

US HISTORY

 

 

1. Manifest Destiny was the belief that

  A. Americans were culturally equal to the native and Hispanic populations to the west.
  B. the western boundaries of the United States should stop at the Rocky Mountains.
  C. Protestantism and the American form of government should be established in Mexico.
  D. the citizens of the United States had a God-given right to conquer the land to the Pacific Ocean.

 

2. The Wilmot Proviso

  A. permitted slavery to be established in any new state or territory where the voters wished to allow it.
  B. prohibited slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico.
  C. protected slavery in the South.
  D. prohibited slavery in any part of the Oregon Territory acquired from Great Britain.

3. The Compromise of 1850 included all of the following except

  A. admittance of California as a free state.
  B. settling a border dispute involving land in Texas’ favor.
  C. popular sovereignty in the remainder of the Mexican cession.
  D. abolition of the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

4. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

  A. was later ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
  B. did not apply to Washington, D.C.
  C. did not permit southern slave catchers to enter free states.
  D. denied alleged runaways a jury trial or the right to testify in their own defense.

5. In 1854, why did Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduce the Kansas-Nebrska Act?

  A. He wanted to negate the Missouri Compromise and open the area to slaveholders.
  B. He wanted to build a transcontinental railroad from Chicago to Northern California.
  C. Northern Democrats promised to support his bid for the presidency in 1856 if he made sure that slavery would never be introduced into areas where it had been banned by the Missouri Compromise.
  D. He wanted to disprove the allegation that the Great Plains were a desert, unsuitable for settlement.

6. The Kansas-Nebraska Act did all of the following except

  A. organize the Kansas and Nebraska territories under popular sovereignty.
  B. increase the likelihood of a transcontinental railroad in the North.
  C. eventually lead to bloodshed in Kansas.
  D. give the Whig Party a political advantage over the Democratic Party.

7. The American Party, or Know-Nothings,

  A. originated in anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic societies of the 1840s.
  B. owed its nickname to opponents’ jibes that it “knew nothing” about how to deal with the political crises of the 1850s.
  C. despite gaining much attention, failed to win control of any state government or any seats in Congress.
  D. appealed only to voters in the North who were equally fearful of immigrants and the “slave power” and ignored the southern vote.

8. In the settlement and organization of the Kansas Territory in 1854 and 1855, President Buchanan

  A. favored the settlers sponsored by the New England Emigrant Aid Society.
  B. supported the proslavery Lecompton Constitution.
  C. invalidated an election in which proslavery Missourians had crossed into Kansas to vote.
  D. played no role, choosing instead to ignore the issue.

9. Which of the following was not part of Chief Justice Robert Taney’s Dred Scott decision?

  A. The issue of slavery in the territories should be settled by Congress rather than the courts.
  B.  Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory.
  C. The Constitution prevented Congress from passing a law that deprived persons of their slaves in the territories.
  D. Blacks could not be considered as citizens of the United States .

10. The Dred Scott decision

  A. deprived the Republicans of their political platform because their respect for the Court was so strong that they bowed to its ruling even though they disagreed with it.
  B. persuaded many Republicans that the Supreme Court was part of the “slave power” conspiracy.
  C. smoothed over sectional tensions for two years.
  D. persuaded Stephen A. Douglas to disavow the popular sovereignty doctrine.

11. Which of the following statements about the election of 1860 is correct?

  A. Lincoln was selected as the Republican nominee because he was the best-known Republican nationally and because of his unwavering opposition to slavery.
  B. Steven Douglas won several northern states and came a close second to Lincoln in the electoral vote.
  C. Despite being a four-way race, Lincoln won majorities in both the popular and electoral votes.
  D. Southern Democrats split from the party and nominated John Breckinridge, who carried the states in the Deep South.

12. In the aftermath of Lincoln’s election to the presidency in 1860, Southerners feared which of the following?

  A. That the federal government would encourage slave uprisings
  B. That Republicans would meddle with the institution of slavery
  C. Racial mixture between black men and white women
  D. All of the above

13. All of the following statements are true of the Confederate draft during the Civil War except

  A. it was the first legally binding draft in American history.
  B. it was supported by all classes as a necessity
  C. foIr most of the war, the age limits for the draft were between eighteen and thirty-five.
  D. planters who owned more than twenty slaves and the wealthy could legally avoid being drafted by hiring substitutes.

14. President Lincoln suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War to

  A. assure that civil liberties would be protected.
  B. demoralize the South.
  C. stop disloyal activities such as protests against the draft.
  D. encourage voluntary enlistment in the Union army for the duration of the war.

15. The Emancipation Proclamation stated that

  A. slaves in the seceded states would be freed.
  B. slaves in the border states would be freed.
  C. all slaves in the United States would be freed.
  D. all fugitive slaves and all slaves captured by the Union army were forever free.

16. Which of the following was a consequence of the Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg in 1863?

  A. The South was never able to invade the North again.
  B. The South was no longer able to militarily win the Civil War.
  C. the Confederacy was split at the Mississippi..
  D. All of the above

17. The South was unable to convince England to provide it with more support during the Civil war largely because

  A. Its commitment to slavery as well as England finding other sources of cotton .
  B. of the increased importance of the American merchant marine.
  C. England’s agriculture was self-sufficient.
  D. the English public was indifferent to the war.

18. In what way did blacks face discrimination in the Union army during the Civil War?

  A. They were initially paid less than white soldiers.
  B. They were forced to serve in segregated all-black units, and to serve exclusively under white officers.
  C. They were mainly used to build fortifications and guard supply lines.
  D. All of the above

19. The Thirteenth Amendment (chapter 16)

  A. balanced the power between the North and the South in the Senate.
  B. protected citizens through habeas corpus.
  C. prohibited slavery throughout the United States.
  D. granted citizenship to slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.

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