Second Edition ISBN-13: 9780763764739 HCA 503 Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Care Professionals Text: Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professionals Authors: George D. Pozgar Publisher: JB Learning –.—————-Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. is an individual’s view of what is right and wrong. Ethical theory Consequential ethics Macro-ethics Moral values Micro-ethics 2. The application of normative theories to practical moral problems is referred to as distributive justice applied ethics secular ethics normative ethics nonmaleficience 3. ethics are based on codes (e.g., Code of Hammurabi) developed by societies which have relied on customs to formulate their codes. Compassion Religious Secular Deontological Morality 4. One who is has control over his/her own actions. hopeful ethical autonomous virtuous compassionate 5. said, “Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determine what shall be done with his own body .. ” William the Philosopher Justice Brenner Moses Hammurabi Justice Carodozo This is a form of beneficence that may involve, for example, withholding information from a person because of the belief that it is in the best interest of that person. Paternalism Justice Autonomy Deontology Normative 7. This term describes the obligation to be fair in the distribution of benefits. a.Beneficence Autonomy Justice Nonmaleficence Responsibility 8. All segments of the population do not have equal to health care. justice commitment access integrity value 9. This term is a usually a form of moral excellence or beneficial quality. Virtue Value Moral Ethical theory Ethical principal 10. A moral is something that has worth. value moral virtue reality justice A person is one who has moral integrity and has a strict regard for doing what is considered the right thing to do.virtuous conscientious committed compassionate ethicalA person who is said to have a steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code is considered to have _ moral values discernment compassion integrity humility One’s moral character can sometimes change as circumstances change, thus the term _____ ethics. discerning integrity compassionate normative situational If the ethical responsibilities of caregivers involve respecting a patient’s right to make his or her own decision, the ethical principle of is being practiced. integrity normative ethics justice d.beneficence e. autonomy If caregivers fairly allocate their resources equally to all patients, the ethical principle of is being practiced. a. compassion b.beneficence justice veracity integrity 16. The theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one’s culture is ethical relativism situational ethics religious ethics normative ethics cultural realityGen. Nguyen Ngoc Loan, chief of South Viet Nam’s national police, walked up and shot a prisoner in the head. His reason: the prisoner, a Viet Cong lieutenant, had just murdered a South Vietnamese colonel, his wife and their six children. Assuming this is out of one’s moral character, what ethical theory might apply? a.Beneficence Normative ethics Religious ethics Situational ethics Autonomy 18. What Christian religious group believes it is a sin to accept a blood transfusion? a. Taoist b.Jew Jehovah’s Witness Methodist e.lslam 19. In the U.S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, _ a woman’s right to privacy was denied recognition of the state in protecting the unborn was denied there was no attempt to spell out the extent to which states may regulate abortions gave strength to a woman’s right to privacy all of the above 20. In the second trimester of a pregnancy, the state _ a. has the right to regulate abortion procedures in ways reasonably related to maternal health is not involved in the abortion decision between a woman and her physician has a right to prohibit all abortions has the right to decide a woman’s right to abortion on a case by case basis none of the above The Doe v. Zimmerman case declared unconstitutional provisions of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act requiring written consent of the _ parent spouse state U.S. Supreme Court none of the aboveEthical considerations must address when conducting research on human subjects. personal autonomy self-determination Hippocratic maxim of “do no harm” and the Hippocratic oath’s requirement that physicians benefit their patients “according to their best judgment” the ethical considerations involved in using persons as subjects of research all of the above 23. Federal regulations control federal grants that apply to experiments involving new drugs medical devices medical procedures a, band c a and c only Federal regulations require hospital-based researchers to obtain approval of an institutional review board, which functions to _ review proposed research studies conduct follow-up reviews on a regular basis approve all research protocols without question a and b only all of the above 25. Wrongful birth actions claim that _ if not for breach of duty by the defendant, a child would not have been born. damages were sustained by parents of an unexpected child based on the allegation that the child’s conception was the result of negligent sterilization procedures or a defective contraceptive device. the parent and/or child claims to have suffered harm as a result of being born. none of the above all of the above 26. Active euthanasia occurs when _ hope for survival still exists a potentially life-saving treatment is withdrawn or withheld physician assisted suicide there is an intentional commission of an act that will result in death none of the above The Supreme Court has ruled that there exists no constitutional right to assisted suicide. This decision allowed the state of Michigan to prosecute for assisting patients in committing suicide. Kevorkian Cruzan Quinlan Humphry e.Quili 28. Advance directives _ a. allow the patient to state in advance the kinds of medical care that he or she considers acceptable or not acceptable b.allows the patient to appoint an agent to make those decisions on his or her behalf allows the patient to execute a living will allows the patient to execute a durable power of attorney all of the above 29. Guardianship is a legal mechanism by which the court declares _ the guardian incompetent and appoints a proxy a person incompetent and appoints a guardian a person competent and appoints a guardian a family member incompetent and appoints a guardian none of the above 30. A surrogate decision maker is an agent who acts on behalf of _ an agent who lacks the capacity to participate in a particular decision a proxy who lacks the capacity to participate in a particular decision a patient who lacks the capacity to participate in a particular decision a physician who lacks the capacity to participate in a particular decision a and d only 31. Futility ofTreatment _ a. relates to medical occurrences where the physician recognizes that the effect of treatment will be of no benefit to the patient b. morally requires the physician to inform the patient when there is little likelihood of success in further treatment is a scientific decision none of the above a, b and conly 32. The Supreme Court has ruled that there is _ a constitutional right to assisted suicide no constitutional right to assisted suicide an unconstitutional right to assisted suicide all of the above none of the above 33. Ethics committees should be structured to include _ persons in positions of political stature, respect and diversity only hospital caregivers a wide range of community leaders a and conly all of the above 34. Patients and family should be encouraged to _ rely on paternalism depend on the physician’s beliefs and values participate in patient care conflict resolution rely on caregivers to make patient decisions 35. Circular reasoning describes a person that _ has no known beliefs believes in situational ethics has already decided the correctness of something has no concern for right and wrong takes all opinions under advisement prior to deciding right from wrong 36. An informed decision involves _ th
e process of identifying the various alternatives to an ethical dilemma determining the pros and cons of alternative choices having a clear unbiased willingness to listen making fair and reasonable decisions based on accepted moral values all of the above 37. A general rule of conduct that is enforced by the government is _ judicial decision private law public law regulation 38. is where common law is derived. Written laws Statutes Judicial decisions Public laws Constitutional laws 39. One could argue that U.S. common law was adapted from _ English common law English statutory law French common law French legal system Spanish legal system 40. The primary responsibility of administrative agencies is to _ implement administrative law create administrative law develop rules and regulations to implement the law none of the above a and c 41. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) _ develops and implements administrative regulations carries out national health and human services policy objectives is the main source of regulations that affect the health care industry is a cabinet level position all of the above 42. Negligence can be in the form of _ malfeasance misfeasance nonfeasance all ofthe above none of the above 43. The infringement on the mental security or tranquillity of another person is _ assault tranquillity battery false imprisonment e.jeopardyA false oral or written communication to someone other than the individual being defamed that subjects that individual’s reputation to scorn and ridicule is known as _ defamation of character criminal conduct duty to care foreseeability none ofthe above 45. The spoken word of defamation is _ a.libel slander breach of duty all of the above none of the above The wilful and intentional misrepresentation that could cause harm or loss to an individual or property. Tort Fraud Criminal act Broken contract Unintentional misrepresentation 47. An offense punishable by less than one year in jail and/or a fine. Felony Fraud Misdemeanor Tort Negligence 48. To be enforceable, contracts must contain _ an offer or communication consideration acceptance none of the above all of the above 49. A legal order requiring a person to appear in court. Subpoena duces tecum Subpoena Contract Exclusive contract Demonstrative evidence 50. Damages can include _ nominal damages compensatory damages hedonic damages punitive damages all of the above

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