Final Exam: Fallacies, Assumptions, and ArgumentsPart I: FallaciesThe following arguments contain various kinds of fallacies. Evaluate each and identify the fallacy using the matching list on page 2.1. We can recognize that athletes who participate in sports must be given special consideration in our grading system, or we can let the university sink into athletic oblivion.2. I don’t know what colleges are teaching these days! I just received a letter of application from a young man who graduated from the state university last June. It was a wretched letterâbadly written, with elementary errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar. The state university does not deserve the tax support it is getting.3. All right-thinking people will support the Board of Education’s decision to destroy novels in the school libraries that are offensive to the communityâs moral standards. If there were an epidemic of typhoid, the health authorities would do everything in their power to wipe it out. Pornography is worse than typhoid, because it corrupts the minds and morals of the young, not just their bodies. The school board is to be applauded for their prompt action in wiping out this moral disease.4. Despite endless efforts, no one has been able to prove that Santa Clause exists; we may as well stop trying and accept the truth: there is no Santa Clause.5. Alicia started gaining more weight than ever when she started taking Slimdown; the stuff must be fattening!6. No sensible person would support the Equal Rights Amendment. If it were to pass, we would have women in combat and unisex bathrooms. Eventually, we would not be able to tell women from men!7. How can Clinton be leading this country? He’s a draft-dodging, pot-smoking womanizer!8. Michael Jordan wore that brand, so those must be the best basketball shoes.9. The difference in the outcome was Jefferson’s missed field goal. If he put it through, we’d be going to the Super Bowl.10. Don’t ignore the woman who gave you birth, raised you, loved you then, and loves you still. Remember your mom on Mother’s Day.11. So what if I didn’t claim all of the money I earned on my taxes? Lots of people underreport their income.12. That’s got to be a great line of clothes. Have you seen the prices and the people endorsing it?Matching ListEach argument commits only one fallacy, and each fallacy is only used once.a. False Analogyb. Appeal to Authorityc. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hocd. Attacking the Persone. Two Wrongsf. Non Sequiturg. Equivocationh. False Dilemmai. Black and White (Slippery Slope)j. Hasty Generalizationk. Contrary-to-Fact Hypothesisl. Ad Ignorantiumm. Appeal to EmotionPart II: Assumptions and Arguments1. How do assumptions relate to the critical thinking process?2. What are the essential components of a logical argument?3. What is the meaning of validity, truth, and soundness as they relate to logical syllogisms?4. What are the two formal fallacies?
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