Examine systemic influences on personality development. Select one personal factor, one societal factor, and one cultural factor from the list below. Discuss how they influence personality development (e.g. how can abuse influence personality development?) Demonstrate how one of the personality theories explains the personal, societal, and cultural factors discussed in your paper. If the theory does not account for these factors then show how it could be adapted to account for these factors. Name: University: Our personalities make us unique individuals. This is evident in the way we interact with people around us and how we respond to the situations we encounter in life. Everyone has a different way of doing this, and this is what makes us different; the distinguishing factor here is personality. The childhood period is a critical stage as it is here where the foundations of personality are laid. Our personality is determined by a number of factors. These factors can be personal, social or cultural. Life experiences, genetic heredity and one’s surrounding environment are also key in personality development. The cultures we are brought up shapes our personality and the process of personality development. Religion is a cultural factor that influences personality growth.  If a person is born and raised in a religious family, they will have different life principles as compared to those raised in non-religious backgrounds. Religion therefore influences a person’s ideology, principles and social interactions since people tend to follow their religious teachings. Various studies have shown that religious orientation in adults influences their personality (Maltby, 2000). Education on the other hand is a personal determinant of personality. According to           (Lochner & Moretti, 2004; Sewell &Turcker, 1993), if a person has high education, they will be healthier, will earn more and are likely to participate in academic groups. Those who are less educated will be victims of unemployment are more likely to be involved in criminal activities and are loan defaulters.  Education leads to gain of knowledge and skills such as critical thinking. It is for this reason that past societies created education. The main goal was to bring a change in people’s psychological functioning. According to (DeRaad & Schouwenburg, 1996), education in the mid 19th Century was meant to foster the development of ‘character’ and ‘mature personality’ (Jackson, 2012). Education also results in personality change especially during the adolescent years. College makes young people to be more dominant, more conscientious and fosters emotional stability. They also become liberal and open to experience. One study showed that best performers in colleges portrayed high conscientiousness in all their four years in college (Robins et al., 2005). Their conscientiousness had also increased since their freshman year. They were also awarded for their outstanding character. (Ludtke, Roberts, Trautwein, & Nagy, 2011) also note that high neuroticism was caused by students scoring poorly in an important academic exam (Jackson, 2012) War is influenced by society and so is a societal determinant of personality. Experiences of war adversely affect the minds of children and their behavior. This involves changes in thinking, memory, problem solving and emotions. This creates a complicated environment for children and makes them face developmental challenges. Punamaki (2002) notes that, the smooth transition of childhood stages is interfered with by war and violence. The magnitude of this impact depends on the age and stage of life. In infants, war may lead to negative emotions, fear and mistrust. Aggressive behavior, fear, lack of empathy and hatred are the impacts of war in toddlers. Those in middle childhood may experience concentration problems and may be committed to war just like adults. The adolescents will experience distrust in others and the traumatic memories may adversely affect their intimate relationships. Remedies of these should be based on individual needs of dealing with the trauma (Punamaki, 2002) All these aspects can be explained using Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory. In this theory, psychological problems are believed to emanate from the unconscious mind. The main causes are believed to be past issues that were never resolved, or trauma that was repressed.  We can therefore relate this to war, education, and religion and their effects on personality development. These aspects will therefore stick in the subconscious memory of an individual which is complex; and individuals will always base on this in making major decisions in their lives and also handling various life situations. Freud (1907/1961) suggested that there is a relationship between obsessive actions and religious practices. He said that religious practice and neurosis served as main tools in repressing instincts (Lewis, 1994). In the psychoanalytic theory, the religiosity of one’s childhood then remains embedded in their unconscious memory and that greatly affects their decision making when they become adults. Using the Freudian thinking, the wars and anti-social behavior that have dominated the public sphere today can also be explained. According to Freud, neurosis is mainly caused by conflict in the mind. This therefore leads to its external manifestation (Business Editors/Feature, W. F. (2002, May 02). Memories of war in childhood years cause trauma to individuals and this greatly alters their adult personality, as most repress it. The best way to ensure that people have pleasant personalities is therefore for parents to be cautious with the way they raise their children. This is because the childhood years are critical in the process personality development. References Business Editors/Feature, W. F. (2002, May 02). FEATURE/Civilization on the couch: The American psychoanalytic association offers lessons for today’s world from Sigmund Freud’s civilization and its discontents. Business Wire, pp. 1-1. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/446419173?accountid=45049 Jackson, J. J. (2012). The effects of Educational Experiences on Personality Trait Development; Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy in psychology in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at urban- Champaign, 2012. Lewis, C. A. (1994). Religiosity and Obsessionality: The relationship between Freud’s “religious practices”. The Journal of Psychology, 128(2), 189-96. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213818446?accountid=45049 Maltby, J. (1999). Personality dimensions of religious orientation. The Journal of Psychology, 133(6), 631-640. Retrieved from Punaki, R.L. (September 2002). The uninvited guest of war enters childhood: developmental and personality aspects of war and military violence; Trumatology, vol. 8, no.3 (September 2002) CLICK HERE TO GET MORE ON THIS PAPER !!!

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