Environmental SciencePlease select the best answer for each question listed below. It may help to search for each answer item and eliminate any answers that contradict the question (i.e. work backwards). For the fill in the blank questions where the response would be a persons name, provide only the persons LAST NAME in the blank.Question 1This philosophical doctrine is described as a coherent form of naturalism that looks to evolution and biosphere, not to deities, spirits, quasi-religious or supernatural causes and answers. Philosophically, stems from solid organismic tradition in Western philosophy. Socially, it critically unmasks the entire evolution of hierarchy in all its forms including neo-Malthusiam elitism, eco-brutalism, anti-humanism, latent racism, first-world arrogance, and Yuppie nihilism of post-modernistic spiritualism. Politically, it’s green like the German Greens, radical ecofeminists, and encourages New England style town meetings. Morally, it’s humanistic and doesn’t degrade the uniqueness of humans. It seeks to give the human species and mind their due in natural evolution, rather than regarding them as simply “in the biosphere.” This philosophical doctrine is called:A.a) Social EcologyB.b) LeopoldismC.c) Deep EcologyD.d) BiocentrismQuestion 2According to course materials and readings, the term nature is characteristically defined as:A.that which ought to be the case, the ethical sense.B.that which is not artificial.C.the aggregate of objects and processes in the universe.D.all of the above statements characterize the term nature.Question 3One of the author’s of this week’s readings describes this movement as more of a new age, fast food of quasi-radical environmentalism. He compares their “spiritual ecobabble” about decentralization, small-scale communities, etc. with middle aged feudal society which was inherently oppressive and hierarchical. He equates them with superficial environmentalists who just want to dress up environmental problems without addressing the fundamental societal roots of our ecological problems. He believes this movement preaches a gospel of original sin, accusing a malignant product of natural evolution, humanity, of overpopulating the planet, devouring its resources, and destroying wildlife. The doctrine was conceived by privileged white male academics who now inspire anti-humanist, eco-brutalists who preach that disease, famine, war, etc., is nature’s population control. He says it’s a spiritual ecotopia that degrades humanity and the individual by ignoring the entirety of humanness and the social origins of our ecological crisis. This doctrine makes us equal with animals, mountains, and rivers instead of embracing human nature and trying to change the fundamental problems inherent in a capitalist society. This philosophy would arguably protect lethal viruses and plague germs because they are our equal in the ecological community, and 2) they will help kill off the malignant human population to more acceptable levels. Exactly what movement is it that so outrages this author?A.a) UtilitarianismB.b) Deep EcologyC.c) Shallow EcologyD.d) Anthropocentric RationalityQuestion 4″Simple in means, Rich in Ends.” 1) Rejection of the man-in-environment image in favor of the relational, total-field image; 2) Biospherical egalitarianism – in principle; 3) Principles of diversity and symbiosis; 4) Anti-class posture; 5) Fight against pollution and resource depletion; 6) complexity, not complication; 7) Local autonomy and decentralization.These are tenets of the philosophy called ____________ which was founded by ___________________?A.a) Deep Ecology, NaessB.b) Ecosophy Devall, SessionsC.c) Ecocentrism, LeopoldD.d) Social Ecology, BrunhaolmQuestion 5This author concludes that it’s crazy to think that all values lie in subjective human experience, options and preferences. He argues that we are “psychologically joining ongoing planetary natural history in which there is value wherever there is positive creativity.” This creativity can be found in sentient beings with their interests and preferences. It (value) can also be found “objectively in living organisms with their lives defended, and in species that defend an identity over time, and in systems that are self-organizing and that project stories achievements.” It’s perilous to believe that everything has value only in reference to one species; human. This author is an objectivist. Choose the author who adopts these sentiments.A.a) LeopoldB.b) RolstonC.c) NaessD.d) Devall and SessionsQuestion 6Present a well-developed essay response to each question. Write in a clear and descriptive narrative fashion, maintain a professional tone, and cite all of your research.Does Mill argue that we should imitate or correct nature? Do you agree?Question 7Present a well-developed essay response to each question. Write in a clear and descriptive narrative fashion, maintain a professional tone, and cite all of your research.What is the difference between value that is anthropocentric and value that is anthropogenic? Support your answer with an example and an anthropogenic value that is not anthropocentric.

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