4.22 Let Yi be a bin(ni, πi) variate for group i, i =1,…,N, with {Yi} independent. Consider the model that πi = ••• = πN. Denote that common value by π. For observations {yi}, show that  When all ni = 1, for testing this model”s fit in the N × 2 table, show that X2 = n. Thus, goodness-of-fit statistics can be completely unin­formative for ungrouped data.

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