SHORT SYNOPSIS OF LAB WITH SUPPORT FROM RESULTSABSTRACTThis lab demonstrated the differences between normal and abnormal urine through theadministration of a urinalysis test on the subjects urine. The physical characteristics of normalurine, such as color, cloudiness, and odor, as well as variables that can often indicateabnormalities were understood through..IF/THAN STATEMENT PREDICTING THE OUTCOME OF THELABHYPOTHESISPROCEDUREProcedure1. Get a small cup to in which to collect your urine sample.2. Before collecting, void a small amount of urine from your bladder to clear the urethraof anycontaminants such as bacteria or menstrual blood.3. Void into the small cup.4. Wash your hands and return to your work area.5. Observe the physical characteristics of your urine sample and record the followinginformationin the data table below.a. The color of your urine will vary from very pale yellow to amber. Urochrome is the byproductof hemoglobin that gives urine its yellowish color.b. The clarity or cloudiness of your urine sample. Is there any sediment?6. You will now test the pH of your urine sample using the pH test strip from your LabPaq.URINALYSIS LAB37. Dip the pH test strip into the sample for a few seconds and remove.8. Place the pH test strip on a paper towel and compare the color of the test with the pH colorguide on the strip. Record the pH of your urine in the data table.9. Get out the Urinalysis Test Stick to check the glucose and protein content of your urine.10. Dip the stick into your urine sample and hold it in the urine for 10 seconds.11. Remove the testing stick and place it on a paper towel.12. Using the guide that came with the testing stick, read the glucose and protein content ofyoururine sample.13. Record your results into the data table.14. Read over the following information about normal and abnormal urinalysis results.Normal ValuesNormal urine may vary in color from almost colorless to dark yellow. Some foods (like beetsand blackberries) may color the urine red.The urine specific gravity ranges between 1.006 and 1.030 (higher numbers mean a higherconcentration). The specific gravity varies depending on the time of day, amount of food andliquids consumed, and the amount of recent exercise.The urine pH is also influenced by a number of factors. Generally the normal pH range isfrom4.6 to 8.0, with an average of 6.0.There is usually no detectable urine glucose, urine ketones, or urine protein.There are usually no red blood cells in urine.Hemoglobin is not normally found in the urine.Bilirubin is normally not detected in the urine. There may be a trace of urobilinogen in theurine.Nitrites and white blood cells (leukocytes) are not normally present in the urine.What abnormal results meanURINALYSIS LAB4URINE APPEARANCE AND COLOR: If the urine is of an unusual color that cannot beaccountedfor by food intake or medication (and the urinalysis is positive), consult the health care provider.URINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY: If the specific gravity is higher or lower than the normal range, or ifitdoes not vary (the concentration of the urine depends on the time of day, the amount of foodandfluids you have had, and the amount of exercise you have had recently), it may indicate akidneyproblem, and you should consult the health care providerURINE PH: In some situations, alkaline urine is good. Kidney stones are less likely to form andsomeantibiotics are more effective in the alkaline urine. There may be times when the acidic urinemayhelp prevent some kinds of kidney stones and may prevent growth of certain types of bacteria. Ifthe pH is very acidic or alkaline, you may want to discuss it with the health care provider.URINE SUGAR: When blood levels of glucose are very high, some of the glucose may show upinthe urine. The glucose and the ketones tests are usually done together. Large amounts ofketonesmay be present in uncontrolled diabetes. Consult the health care provider.URINE PROTEIN: Finding protein in the urine is probably the best test for screening for kidneydisease, although there may be a number of causes for an increased protein level in the urine.Consult the health care provider.When blood is found in the urine, it may indicate a urinary tract disease or bleeding from thekidneys. However, the cause may also be vigorous physical exercise. If there is no associationbetween exercise and the positive blood findings, consult the health care provider.OTHER: Bilirubin in the urine is a sign of a liver or bile duct disease, and you should consult thehealth care provider. Urobilinogen is found in small traces in the urine. If there are largeamounts,URINALYSIS LAB5you should discuss it with the health care provider.Nitrites and white blood cells are an indication that a urinary tract infection is present and youshould contact the health care provider.Any vitamin C that the body does not need is excreted in the urine. If there are measurableamounts of vitamin C in the urine, it may interfere with the other urine tests. One may receivefalse positives and false negatives on the results.SUPPLY DATAOBSERVATIONSData Table1Characteristi Results/Remarks/ValuescColorClarityOdorpHGlucoseProteinRESULTSANSWER EACH QUESTION IN FIVE TO EIGHTSENTENCESThe function of the kidneys is to filter blood and in so doing, maintain blood homeostasis.Toxins and excess materials are removed from the blood to be voided in the urine. Inaddition, the kidney is responsive to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior lobeof the pituitary gland, and aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. These hormones play aURINALYSIS LAB6role in regulating body fluid compartments, blood pressure, and electrolyte balance.Furthermore, the kidneys help maintain the pH of the blood.1. Sunstroke was a common danger in biblical days (2 Kings 4:18-20). Comment on therole the kidneys play in adjusting electrolyte and fluid balance as a result of sunstroke.2. In the bible, the kidneys are almost always mentioned in conjunction with the heart.Based on our current understanding of anatomy and the function of the kidneys, make acorrelation between our kidneys and cardiac output (blood supply).3. What is the renal system?4. Why is it important to understand renal physiology when it comes to abusing drugs oralcohol?ANSWER QUESTIONS WITH SUPPORT FROM DATAFROM LABA. What is the normal pH range of urine?B. What substances in the urine might indicate that a person has diabetes?C. What factors might affect the color, odor and pH of a urine sample?URINALYSIS LAB7D. What are the three physiological processes involved in urine production? E. Whatwould a high level of protein in the urine indicate?SUMMARIZE THE OBJECTIVES BELOW IN ONEPARAGRAPH AND DESCRIBE PURPOSE OF LABCONCLUSIONDescribe the physical characteristics of normal urineCompare the physical and chemical characteristics of normal and abnormal urineConduct a urinalysis test on your own urine sampleREFERENCESMarieb & Hoehn (2010). Human Anatomy and Physiology.San Francisco, CA: PearsonBenjamin Cummings
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